Paratyphoid / Salmonella - Paratyphoid in pigeons is an acute or chronic bacterial disease caused by Salmonella. The primary means of infection is through fecal contamination of feed, water or the environment. The devastating nature of this disease is impacted by the occurrence of asymptomatic carrier birds, which show no signs of illness and spread the disease to other birds. The organism is located in the intestine and may then intermittently shed through the feces. The disease in squabs causes high mortality. Symptoms are usually evident soon after hatching and appear as retarded growth, diarrhea and death. Necropsy often reveals an unabsorbed yolk sack in addition to typical intestinal lesions. Adult birds show a mild infection or may be completely without symptoms. Hens often develop infected ovaries and reproductive tract leading to transmission to the egg and newly hatched chicks. Dropped wings or leg lameness are symptoms. Another sign is joint swelling or "wing boils". Any stressful condition may make the symptoms apparent. Other symptoms may be respiratory distress, anemia or twisted neck or loss of balance. Also severe diarrhea and loss of weight. Paratyphoid should be treated for at least 21 days.